Egypt officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world. Covering an area of about 1,010,000 square kilometers (390,000 sq mi), Egypt is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west.

Egypt's economy depends mainly on agriculture, media, petroleum exports, exports of natural gas, and tourism; there are also more than three million Egyptians working abroad, mainly in Saudi Arabia, the Persian Gulf and Europe. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1970 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population, limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress the economy.

The government has invested in communications and physical infrastructure. Egypt has received U.S. foreign aid (since 1979, an average of $2.2 billion per year) and is the third-largest recipient of such funds from the United States following the Iraq war. Its main revenues however come from tourism as well as traffic that goes through the Suez Canal.Egypt has a developed energy market based on coal, oil, natural gas, and hydro power. Substantial coal deposits are in the northeast Sinai, and are mined at the rate of about 600,000 metric tons (590,000 long tons; 660,000 short tons) per year. Oil and gas are produced in the western desert regions, the Gulf of Suez, and the Nile Delta. Egypt has huge reserves of gas, estimated at 1,940 cubic kilometres (470 cu mi), and LNG is exported to many countries.

Economic conditions have started to improve considerably after a period of stagnation from the adoption of more liberal economic policies by the Government, as well as increased revenues from tourism and a booming stock market. In its annual report, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has rated Egypt as one of the top countries in the world undertaking economic reforms.Foreign direct investment (FDI) into Egypt has increased considerably in the past few years, exceeding $6 billion in 2006, due to the recent economic liberalization and privatization measures taken by minister of investment Mahmoud Mohieddin.

Source: Wikipedia, Economy of Egypt.


General Information
Official Name Arab Republic of Egypt
Capital Cairo
Main Cities Alexandria, Ismailia, Port Said, Giza
Languages Arabic(Official), English, French
Government Republic
Independence Day 28 February, 1922
Area 1,001,450 sq km(land:995,450 sq km; water:6,000 sq km)
Population 84.1 million
Currency Egyptian Pound(EGP)
Climate Moderate (rainfall and warm), coastal weather
Time Zone EET(UTC +2), Summer (DST) EEST(UTC+3)
Main Airports Int'l Airport of Cairo, Luxor (Luxor City), Ophira (Sharm el-Sheikh), El-Arish(Mediterranean Coast)
Main Harbors Alexandria Port, Damietta Port, Red Sea Ports Authority, Suez Canal Container Terminal, Suez Port
Source: National sources,2014
Economic Information
  2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Key Economic Indicator  
GDP Nominal, Current Price(US$, billion) 188.6 218.7 235.6 262.3 271.4
GDP Growth (%) 4.7 5.1 1.8 2.2 2.1
Current Account Balance(% of GDP) -2.3 -1.9 -2.6 -3.8 -2.0
Inflation, Consumer Prices(%) 16.2 11.7 11.1 8.6 6.9
Foreign Direct Investment(FDI) Inflows(US$, million) 6,711.6 6,385.6 -482.7 6,880.7 5,553
General Government Balance (% of GDP) -6.9 -8.3 -9.8 -10.5 -14.1
Economic Growth (% real change)
Private Consumption 5.7 4.1 5.5 5.9 2.8
Government Consumption 5.6 4.5 3.8 3.1 3.5
Gross fixed Investment -10.2 7.8 -5.6 0.7 -7.8
Export of goods & Services -14.5 -3.0 1.3 -2.3 4.1
Import of goods & Services -17.9 -3.2 8.4 10.8 -1.1
Structure of Economy (% of GDP)
Agriculture 13.63 13.99 14.52 14.3 13.78
Industry 37.55 37.53 37.63 37.50 37.72
Services 48.82 48.48 47.85 48.20 48.50
Economic Policy
Budget Balance(% of GDP) -6.6 -8.1 -10.0 -10.6 -13.6
Public Debt(% of GDP) 84 82 84 86 92
Money Market interest rate(%) 9.8 9.3 14.0 13.0 10.6
M2 Growth (% change) 9 12 7 12 19
Exchange Reate LCU to USD 5.5 5.6 5.9 6.1 6.9
Balance of Payments (US$, million)
Current Account Balance -13,767 -4,407 -7,842 -14,099 -11,980
Trade Balance -33,047 -26,485 -28,485 -40,200 -40,254
Exports (Goods) 25,141 26,438 30,782 34,384 33,520
Imports (Goods) 58,188 52,923 59,267 74,584 73,774
Service Balance 13,247 15,483 11,733 12,690 12,935
Income Balance -1,927 -5,844 -6,311 -6,380 -5,990
Transfer Balance 7,960 12,439 15,221 19,791 21,329
Net direct investment flows 6,141 5,210 -1,108 2,587 1,160
Net portfolio investment flows -527 8,942 -10,269 -1,953 1,152
Net debt flows -203 2,049 -1,262 5,066 10,628
Other Capital Flows (* negative is flight) -2,132 -8,747 2,407 2,233 -1,910
Change in International reserves 84 1,859 -18,133 -2,728 1,187
External Position(US$m)
Toral Foreign Debt 35,062 36,544 35,150 40,000 50,371
Short-term debt 2,561 3,149 3,026 6,657 6,659
Total debt service duw, incl. short-term debt 5,782 5,585 6,678 6,258 10,114
Total Foreign exchange reserves 32,253 33,612 14,916 11,628 13,608
International inverstment position -29,739 -43.429 -52,605 -69,311 -82,284
Total assets 72,701 79,832 57,785 50,915 50,009
Total liabilities 102,439 123,261 110,390 120,226 132,293
Population and Income
Population (Million) 76.9 78.7 80.4 82.5 84.1
GDP per capita at PPP(US$) 6,047.4 6,288.5 6,388 6,474.4 6,578.5
Unemployment Rate (% of total labor force) 9.4 9.2 12.1 12.3 13
Source: IMF, International Financial Statistics 2014
Egypt Trade with World
US$ Mn. 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Export (fob) 25,141 26,438 30,782 34,384 33,520
Import (cif) 58,188 52,923 59,267 74,584 73,774
Trade Volume 83,329 79,361 90,049 108,968 107,294
Trade Balance -33,047 -26,485 -28,485 -40,200 -40,254
World Trade (US$ Bn) 24,949 28,143 35,397 36,377 36,774
Share 0.33% 0.28% 0.25% 0.29% 0.28%
Source: IMF, International Financial Statistics 2014
Egypt Trade with D-8 Countries
US$ Mn. 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Export (fob) 1,128.44 1,651 2,153 2,178 2,271
Import (cif) 4,389.34 3,198 4,400 6,713 6,439
Trade Volume 5,517.78 4,849 6,553 8,891 8,710
Trade Balance -3,260.9 -1,547 -2,247 -4,535 -4,168
D-8 Intra Trade (US$ Mn) 66,947.62 101,139 129,493 148,191 133,064
Share 8.2% 4.8% 5.0% 6.0% 6.5%
Source: IMF, International Financial Statistics 2014
Egypt Trade By 10 Main Commodities
Export by 10 Principal Commodities, (million US$)
No. Commodity 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
1. Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products, etc 6,935 7,594 9,242 8,872 7,558
2. Plastics and articles thereof 754 886 1,098 1,267 1,512
3. Electrical and Electronic Equipment 637 816 1,166 1,153 1,205
4. Fertilizers 1,143 1,152 1,443 1,284 1,186
5. Edible vegetables and certain roots and tubers 806 834 986 804 1,040
6. Edible fruit, nuts, peel of citurs fruit, melons 1,006 955 1,020 990 1,010
7. Iron and Steel 557 873 1,157 775 971
8. Pearls, precious stones, metas, coins, etc. 918 1,037 1,726 1,330 907
9. Articles of apparel, accessories, not knit or crochet 811 821 994 770 867
10. Aluminium and articles thereof 405 497 664 673 707
Import by 10 Principal commodities, (million US$)
No. Commodity 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
1. Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products, etc 4,466 7,131 9,280 13,061 9,290
2. Machinery, nuclear reactors, boilers, etc 5,823 5,613 5,452 5,571 6,181
3. Cereals 2,434 3,484 4,452 5,349 4,729
4. Electrical, Electronic equipment 2,924 3,376 3,655 3,713 4,192
5. Iron and Steel 3,563 3,126 3,600 4,307 3,935
6. Vehicles other than railway, tramway 2,648 3,768 3,094 3,555 3,336
7. Plastics and articles thereof 1,890 2,296 2,915 3,112 3,303
8. Articles of Iron and Steel 2,631 2,787 2,598 2,583 2,647
9. Pharmaceuticals products 1,034 1,053 1,352 1,673 1,806
10. Animal vegetable fats and oils, cleavage products, etc. 895 1,023 2,052 1,627 1,621
Source: WTO, International Trade Centre 2014
Export and Import by Main Destination Country
Export by Main Destination Country (% of total)
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Italy 6.6 8.4 8.6 7.9 9.4
India 6 4.7 7.2 6.9 7.4
Saudi Arabia 5.7 5.9 6.3 6.2 6.9
Turkey 2.9 3.7 4.8 5.3 6.1
Libya 4.2 4.6 1.8 4.9 4.4
Others 74.6 72.7 71.3 68.8 65.8
Source: WTO, International Trade Centre 2014
Import by Main Destination Country (% of total)
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
China 8.7 9.2 9.2 9.4 10.5
Germany 8 7.6 6.3 6.7 7.9
USA 10.6 9.4 10.4 7.6 7.8
Italy 5.9 5.6 5 5 5.3
Ukraine 3 3.1 3.1 5.5 4.7
Others 63.8 65.1 66 65.8 63.8
Source: WTO, International Trade Centre 2014
Foreign Direct Investment (Overview, selected years)
US$(Mn.) FDI Flows FDI Stocks
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Inward 6,711.6 6,385.6 -482.7 6,880.7 5,553 66,709 73,094.6 72,611.9 79,492.6 85,045.6
Outward 571.1 1,175.5 625.5 211.1 301 4,272.9 5,448.4 6,073.9 6,285 6,586
Source: UNCTAD, 2014
Agriculture: Food Commodities
US$ Mn 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Export 1,765 1,888 1,733 1,411 1,650
Import 5,550 7,447 11,326 11,466 10,313
Trade Volume 7,315 9,335 13,059 12,877 11,963
Trade Balance -3,785 -5,559 -9,593 -10,055 -8,663
Egypt's Total Trade 83,329 79,361 90,049 108,968 107,294
Share to Egypt's Total Trade 8.7% 11.7% 14.5% 11.8% 11.1%
Source: WTO,FAO 2014
Energy
Oil/Petroleum(Thousand Barrels per Day)
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Total Oil Production 730 725 714 715 714
Consumption 726 766 720 746 757
Refinery 726 726 726 726 726
Proved Reserved(Billion barrels) 4.4 4.5 4.3 4.2 3.9
Natural Gas
Natural Gas(Billion Cubic Feet/Day) 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Total Production 6.1 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.4
Consumption 4.1 4.4 4.8 5.1 5.0
Proved Reserved(Trillion cubic meters,TCM) 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.0 1.8
Others Energy
Energy Year
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Biofuels production (Thousand barrels daily) - - - - -
Electricity Generation (Terawatt-hours) 133.3 143.5 148.6 147.2 148.5
Renewable Energy (Installed Capacity) Geothermal (mega-watts) - - - - -
Solar (maga-watts) - 20 20 20 20
Wind (mega-watts) 552 552 552 552 552
Source: BP statistics, 2014